Projects & Participants
AUTOMATIC SOLAR PANEL GUIDE SYSTEM
In remote areas the sun is a cheap source of electricity because instead of hydraulic generators it uses solar cells to produce electricity. While the output of solar cells depends on the intensity of sunlight and the angle of incidence. It means to get maximum efficiency; the solar panels must remain in front of sun during the whole day. But due to rotation of earth those panels can t maintain their position always in front of sun. This problem results in decrease of their efficiency. Thus to get a constant output, an AUTOMATED SOLAR PANEL GUIDE SYSTEM is required which should be capable to constantly guiding the solar panel to the sun. The automatic solar panel tracking system (ASPGS) is made as a cheap and efficient way to solve the problem, mentioned above.
It is completely automatic and keeps the panel in front of sun until that is visible. The unique feature of this system is that instead of taking the earth as its reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensors constantly monitor the sunlight and rotate the panel towards the direction. The main and most significant feature of this system is scalability i.e. more than one solar panel`s can be guided with this system.
DETECTION MODULE The detection module will keep looking for the sun at regular interval. In case the sun gets invisible e.g. In cloudy weather, the tracking system will continue to look for the sun in the sky and whenever (ie half hour) the sun is visible again it will redirect the solar panel to the sun. The second module of this project is the operation module and in this module there is a similar arrangement that works in full synchronization with the detection module and is always facing the direction in which the sensor is facing.
OPERATION MODULE This is the most important section and as we assume the sun at infinite distance so we can use more of the operation modules for receiving sunlight efficiently. As the detection module finds the coordinates of the sun the operation module is directed towards the sun and as a result we will receive the maximum amount of radiations from the sun resulting into maximum output in the form of electricity.
The goal of this research is to materialize the Electrolytic Effluent Treatment Technique on a commercial scale & thus saving the mother earth & all the living creatures.
AUTOMATIC PUNCHING STATION
Nowadays road accidents are increasing day by day. One of the most important causes of these accidents is that our private buses are not following the time schedules allotted to them. So we had decided to develop a system capable of monitoring the time schedules of each of the buses. This lead to the development of system named Automatic Punching Station .
This project on AUTOMATIC PUNCHING STATION is a Microcontroller based system. Here in this project we make use of PIC 16F73. Initially, a Smart Card Tag has been fixed on the Bus. A Smart Card Reader has been placed at the Punching station. When the bus passes by the station, the cord encoded in the tag is read by the reader. This decoded code (Registration No.) is then sent to the PIC. The PIC then sends this code to the ZigBee transmitter module for its transmission. On reception of the transmitted data by the ZigBee receiver module, it sends the data to the Internet enabled PC. In the PC software developed using Java sends the Registration No. along with the Time of passage of the bus to a server
On reception of the latest data of a particular bus the previous data is updated in the server. An authorized person can access these stored data from the server either using an internet enabled system or a GPRS enabled mobile system. For accessing by using a GPRS, we need to install an application developed in J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition). Implementing this system helps in stopping the service of private buses at unauthorized time schedules. The range of usability of the system is obvious in the present era of increasing road accidents.
PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER BASED GRID CONNECTED WIND SYSTEMS
This project presents the simulation of a closed loop scheme for interfacing wind driven Permanent Magnet (PM) alternator with utility grid through a line commutated inverter. A proportional controller can be used in conjunction with certain block sets from MATLAB/SIMULINK for generating appropriate firing pulses for the SCRs in the inverter. The control objective is to extract maximum power from the wind energy system and to transfer this power to the utility. This is achieved by controlling the firing angle delay of the inverter.
The complete closed loop scheme will be modelled and simulated in MATLAB/ SIMULINK environment and the simulation results will be presented. A PM alternator has been selected for the simulation. It is because modern wind generators use alternators instead of induction generators used in olden days. It has the advantage of having permanent gear ratio (PGR) which avoids unnecessary wear and tear of gear tooth instead of variable gear ratio (VGR) where frequent maintenance and replacement of gear is required. The alternator output will normally be of variable voltage and variable frequency (VVVF). This cannot be directly interfaced with the utility grid. So the power at VVVF will be converted to DC and interfaced with the grid using line commutated inverter.
A constant block representing the wind turbine torque will be used to drive the PM alternator at various speeds. For each speed, the firing angle will be adjusted automatically to extract maximum power. The open loop results will be compared with closed loop results. Grid connection of the renewable energy sources using line commutated inverter introduces harmonics to the grid and causes mains pollution and is undesirable. This project investigates a simple maximum power point tracking system for variable speed wind turbines. The control uses a closed loop circuit which will fire the thyristors at the maximum power operating point. The closed loop system is developed using a simple proportional controller, which convert the power delivered to the grid into corresponding firing angle using which the inverter is fired. As per the configuration, with increase in the speed, the PM generator output will increase, the corresponding firing angle decreases and thereby the power delivered to the grid increases.
This project also investigates the harmonics of the line current and the use of passive filter for the minimization of grid current harmonics. The design and implementation of a tuned filter is also explained. The magnitudes of lower order harmonics (third and fifth) are reduced using third and fifth order filters respectively. Effects of higher order harmonics are smaller, so their effects can be neglected.
UNIVERSAL AID FOR PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED MICROCONTROLLER
Of late there is rapid development in science and technology .utilization of the technology for the well being of the physically disabled people is the need of the hour. We have developed three different prototypes to enable the dumb to speak, deaf to hear, blind to see.
Dumb: It is very difficult for the dumb to survive, though they are mentally talented but they are unable to express their views. To make them speak we have made a device of electro sensitive panel which is fitted to the palm of the hand in which the alphabets are embedded easily in multiple manner such that the person can easily press the soft buttons. Whenever he completes his typing followed by enter key, it will be read aloud using the high sensitive speaker and then they are displayed on the LCD screen .Hence the dumb person is made to speak.
Deaf: The main objective of this prototype is to make the deaf person aware of the things happening around him. This is possible with the help of our deaf aid system . The principle of operation is that sound files concerned with real time happenings are stored in the audio IC S. The deaf person is provided with the system consisting of microphone, audio IC S along with a vibrator to cause sensational effect whenever the person comes across the sounds. He will be alerted with a vibration along with an LCD display displaying the events such as car sound, water drops, etc., Added to this, deaf children in the class room can be made aware of the class taken by the teachers. If the teacher teaches, the voice is converted into the text through the advanced microprocessor and then it is transferred to the children as a text with a vibrational sensation in a wireless manner. Such that he or she can be anywhere in the school. The implementation cost is less when compared to the conventional devices.
Blind: The concept behind this prototype is that a camera will be placed in the spectacle of the blind person. If he wants to read something means, the camera will capture the content and is processed by a processor. The processor intially converts image to text and then the text is inturn converted to voice, whose output is ultimately fed to the headphone of the blind person .Hence he is able to read the content of any text material ,even he/she can read the newspaper with the help of our system.
CITY HAZARDOUS GAS MONITORING NETWORK
INTRODUCTION In our today’s societies, many dangerous chemicals are produced and transported. Due to the vast use of chemicals, more chemical accidents with huge losses of money and human damages are taking place. More than 300 major chemical accidents have been registered in the Europe Chemical Accident Center in the years 1985-97. Bhopal methyl isocyanate accident in 1984 was the worst chemical accident in the recent decades. The explosion of Ammonium Nitrate Train in Nishabour, Iran in the current year which killed 300 and injured more than 500 people was one of the latest tragedies in this regard. In the year 2008,there was also Chlorine gas leak in TELCO, which had caused valuable life and property loss. Gas monitoring could be an essential element of city safety systems for the protection of people and properties on all types of society and production platforms
METHODOLOGY CHGMN components act at 3 levels in a unique system. The first level consists of several sites in high risk urban areas or may be within a single factory. Autonomous or manual robots equipped with gas detector, buzzers and camera are made to monitor these sites. This system detects any kind of gas leakage , blows the alarm and sends signals to the respective local control panel(LCP) informing it about the gas leakage. Second level which covers first level components is consisted of many LCPs, acts as the intermediate level and connects the first and third levels .The local control panel gets the information about the area in which there has been a gas leakage and passes the information to the experts and the central control panel(CCP). The third level is CCP which controls the whole network components and their activities. It could be located anywhere in a city or industry. Also an Access based data bank program will be used to save all detectors readings in a suitable order. Analyzing sites readings over long periods could reveal the risks of chemical safety failures.
CRACKING DOWN GLOBAL WARMING BY RECYCLING CARBON DIOXIDE
INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide induces global warming. Industrial emissions contribute significantly towards the increase of CO2 level in the atmosphere. However prevention of global warming by cutting down industrial growth can never be practicable as industries are indispensable for national economic growth. Thus the idea of recycling the CO2 from industrial emissions to some useful form comes. Though of late a few such ideas are taking shape nothing has crystallized so far. Hence the mission is to capture CO2 from the biomass furnace and to recycle it for the production of liquefied methane which will be used as a fuel. The present proposal is a part of this long term goal.
METHODOLOGY The mission is described here phase wise. A biomass fuel reactor is designed using CFD approach to produce producer gas. It contains traces of CO2. . In 1st phase a technique is developed to capture CO2 from the biomass gas to accelerate the combustion process. CO2 can be collected from the mixture of fluidized biomass gas through a separation nano-membrane. A suitable absorbent is identified. The captured CO2 is stored. In 2nd phase proper electrode material is developed for electrolysis of sea water to obtain hydrogen. In 3rd phase a suitable catalyst is developed to expedite reaction of CO2 with H2 to produce methane gas. Then methane gas is liquified for use as fuel. In all the above three phases the process optimization is achieved using computer simulation.
SURVIELLANCE ROBOT FOR BOMB FINDING
What we are going to represent here is the different parts of the Surveillance Robot for bomb finding operation in a glance that can be controlled by a remote person which is one of the unique feature of this robot. The remote controlling is primarily based on the Radio Frequency mode. The RF remote control is with adequate range which is up to 150 meter, provided with proper a antenna which is good advantage besides, it the range is omnidirectional. The proposed Surveillance Robot can move in all four directions (forward, reverse, left and right as well). The Robot is provided with a foldable arm of three joints, these three sections are able to move in upward and downward direction. The base arm section gives the direction to the further arm sections; middle section sets the actual position of last section that is jaw section of arm, the jaw section works as hand of the robot which is provided with pick and place arrangement.
The decoder is being used for project base latched output. The remote control arrangement is designed so that, any can use it easily, each action of the robot requires one press of button i.e. by pressing one button an operator can perform only one operation. After releasing button that particular action will be stopped. In operation we can perform more than one action simultaneously. Another unique wireless feature of robot is a AV(Audio and Video) camera with very small dimensions. This camera is like a third eye of operator which can able to transmit the remote live video of field up to a receiver video display (LCD), placed at a far distance for the field of robot. This technique is very important when we required the information of enemy and no one can able to go through the field. The camera also very much needed for the search operation of any doubtful object. The camera can encodes transmitter line signal having 1.2 GHz frequency. The signal is received and decode to video display form. The AV signal is transmitted to video display. A proper diagram of the working prototype of Surveillance Robot including remote is as shown in fig. The entire project is splits into sections and each section is explained separately further.
Design of robot to rescue trapped baby
In the present era, there has been a rapidly growing and wide spread interest in robots, mechanical manipulators and hands, mobile platforms, walking machines, and many other so called robotic devices and intelligent systems. these robotic technologies combined with rapid advances in electronics, controls, vision and other forms of sensing, and computing have been widely recognized for their potential applications in almost all areas where machines enter our society. The objective of the project was to construct and design of borewell rescue robot (i:e to rescue a trapped baby from borewell). This project is a human controlled robot that gives an insight view of rescuing the baby safely and steps taken to achieve this.
It is a robot with 2 fingered gripper to grab and airbag to support from beneath the baby and blocking from further falling down. The robot is driven by dc geared motors controlled by microcontroller units and manual operations are also provided for precious operation. Webcam is used to view and monitor the baby.
CORREA DE PECHO DISPOSITIVO
Our project is a ventilation monitoring device by using a chest strap which monitors the respiration process of an asthma patient. This devices can also be used by fire fighters when they are engaged in rescue operations. The device consists of a chest strap which is wrapped around the patient in such a manner as to monitor the diaphragm movement. The contraction and relaxation of diaphragm during the process of respiration is detected and displayed. The strap we intend to build is connected to a circuit which gives a frequency output proportional to cross sectional area of chest. Typical output ranges from 750 to 900 kHz depending on the size of the chest
A frequency to voltage converter gives a voltage output that can be amplified and wirelessly transmitted. The strap consists of a sensor which can be used to detect the movement of diaphragm. The sensed diaphragm movement is converted into signal and can be transmitted and received by using suitable transmitter receiver module. By this way we can detect any abnormalities that might occur during the respiration of an asthma patient. The abnormal condition is sensed an alarm is set to alert the doctor or the family members of the patient. We have also tried to in cooperated techniques to display the waveforms generated through a computer monitor or a CRT.
TAC-4 (TRIANGULAR AIR COMPRESSOR WITH COMMON COMPRESSION CHAMBER)
Compressed air is the most expensive utility and often considered as fourth utility behind fuel, electricity and water. At a time when industries around the world look for additional ways to cut costs, compressed air is good case to start with in terms of quantum of money savings. Though industries use compressed air for various applications ranging from pneumatic tools to personal cleaning, less is known in terms of cost of owning, operating and maintaining such system. A better and accurate approach would be necessary to determine cost to own, operate, and maintain a new or improved system over its useful life. A systematic approach consisting of generation, distribution and end use equipment is fundamentally required to get a holistic overview in terms of new system design as well improvement schemes to reduce specific energy usage and life cycle cost.
Compressors of different types and makes are available in market .Piston type, rotodynamic and screw types are some of them. This project proposes an innovation of compressing air in to a common compression chamber using three radially arranged cylinder and piston. This innovation not only deals with power consumption but also may lead to large scale gains by weight reduction, cost reduction, reduction in oil consumption, reduction in vibration of equipment and design of smaller and higher systems. This project is meant for research and development on fabricating a working model of the new design
THERMOFUEL FROM WASTE PLASTIC
SCOPE: Our project aims to solve the twin problem of environment pollution due to plastics and need for an alternative fuel source. The project thermofuel from waste plastics is a process where by scrap and waste plastics are converted in to synthetic fuel using liquefaction, pyrolysis and the catalytic breakdown of plastics which can produce upto 9500 litres of high grade synthetic fuel from 10 tones of waste plastic.
The system uses stock infeed chamber, catalytic converter, condensers, centrifuge, oil recoveryline, thermocouple, cooling water, off-gas cleaning and adulterant removal with WASTE PLASTICS as raw materials.The reactor which has two hole one at the top for collecting the vapour and the other for temperature measuring with 5500C withstanding capacity is where the waste plastics are put in.Pyrolysis is a process of thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen.plastic wasteplastic is continuously treated in a cylindrical chamber and the pyrolytic gases condensed in a specially-condensed system to yield a hydrocarbon distillate comprising straight and branched chain aliphatics, cyclic aliphatics and aromatic hydrocarbons. The resulting mixture is essentially equivalent to petroleum distillate. The plastic is pyrolised at 370C 420C and the pyrolysis gases are condensed to give a low sulphur content distillate.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION: About 1 kg of waste plastic of same kind (idpe/hdpe) is cut in to piece and dried. Waste plastics are loaded via a hot melt infeed system directly in to main pyrolysis chamber. The burner is started for heating the reactor . when the temperature reaches 2000C the vapour starts to come down to the condenser due to agitation and homogenize the feed stocks. The heating is continued for about 3 hours till the vapours stop collecting. The pyrolysis commences at the point of product of gasification and the non- plastic material fall to the bottom of the chamber. After 1 to 1 1\2 the plastics are completely decomposed. At that time the larger carbon molecules are
Face Recognition using Invariant Fourier Wavelet Descriptor
INTRODUCTION :- Older security mechanisms employed person s possession (key) or person s knowledge (password) as a way to secure their property, but the disadvantage with these security systems is that mechanical objects like key can be duplicated and security passwords can be hacked, so privacy can be lost. The later systems used both possession and knowledge (ATM) but this was found to be insecure in some cases. As security is a major concern in many areas biometrics can be more effective. Among biometrics, face recognition has gained importance due to its appealing characteristics. Face recognition (FR) is the preferred mode of identity recognition amongst various biometrics since it is natural, robust and unintrusive. Many algorithms have been proposed to implement face recognition system based upon appearance or geometry or a combination of these two. The eigenface approach is accepted by many commercially available face recognition systems. This project emphasizes on Fourier-Wavelet Descriptor method which is not only translation, rotation and scaling invariant but also has multi-resolution matching ability.
In this project, a 2-D based invariant Fourier Wavelet descriptor for face recognition has been proposed. Though Fourier descriptor has been a powerful tool for pattern recognition, frequency information obtained from the Fourier descriptor is global and a local variation of the shape can affect all the Fourier coefficients. Wavelets are mathematical functions that split up data into different frequency components, and then analyze each component with a resolution matched to its scale. They have advantages over traditional Fourier methods in analyzing physical situations when the signal contains discontinuities and sharp spikes. But they are not translation invariant. But Fourier descriptor is translation invariant. Thus combining Fourier descriptor and Wavelet descriptor, a system is proposed which is not only invariant under translation, rotation and scaling but also has a multiresolution matching ability.
RESULT:- Robust face recognition is proposed which is invariant to rotation and has multiresolution capabilities. The recognition rate was calculated with a slight rotation of the faces in the database. The recognition rate for ORL database is found to be 97.5% for a database of 40 persons (10 samples/person), wherein 8 images are used as training images and the remaining 2 images of each person are used for testing. Recognition rate is found to be better if more number of samples of each person is taken for training.
IMPROVING THE YIELD OF BIO-ETHANOL FROM BANANA PEELS
INTRODUCTION: We have improved the yield of bio-ethanol by using the Nendran variety of banana and soxhlet apparatus (for improving the efficiency of starch extraction). Our innovation of project lies in the indirect fermentation of starch material. The efficiency of fermentation was increased by direct attack of saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on purified glucose rather than the direct attack on the banana peels.
Malting process: Nendran, a starch rich banana variety, was taken and chopped into small pieces using pestle and mortar. After spraying citric acid (which is a natural preservative and an anti-oxidant) over the banana peels, it was dried in oven at 65 C for 24 hours to remove the moisture. After drying they were ground to powder form containing starch.
Extraction of starch by soxhlet apparatus and its hydrolysis: From one dozen of banana peels 50g of powder was obtained. Starch was extracted from this powder using soxhlet apparatus, taking water as the solvent. The temperature in soxhlet apparatus was maintained at 100 c.Amylase enzyme was added to the starch collected and hydrolysis was carried out in a shaker for 1 hour and temperature was maintained at 50 c.
Production of glucose and ethanol: Starch was broken down to glucose by hydrolysis. Employing DNS method, glucose concentration was found out to be 33g/l. In DNS method the glucose solution changes to red-brown color on adding DNS reagent indicating the presence of glucose it. The optical density of the solution was found out using colorimeter and the concentration was determined. The glucose was then fermented using saccharomyces cerevisiae culture. Finally, ethanol was recovered using distillation process and its assay was carried out.
PEDAL POWERED INVERTER
In India, Inverters have become the most common means of electric power during power failure. Inverters draw direct current from battery and convert it into ac. The batteries are charged from main supply. This draws about 2-3 units of energy daily for charging these batteries. Thus about 60-90 units are utilized per month, which can be avoided using our project. Our project is built upon the simple yet effective idea of generating useful electrical energy from simple physical exercise. In the present state of energy crisis it is high time to switch on to alternate sources of energy rather than depending on energy suppliers. As a solution we have designed an inverter which unlike other conventional inverters uses mechanical power to charge its battery. The mechanical power source that we have chosen is by pedaling a cycle.
The project carries the advantage of the facility to charge the battery even during power failure. This can even be used in places where electricity is out of reach for people. In the present world people are very much concerned about physical wellbeing and they spend a lot for the same, so our project provides an effective mode of generating useful electrical energy from a simple physical exercise
This project is a humble attempt to introduce an effective method of energy production without harming the surroundings. This project if made use in effective way, we believe this could bring forth appreciable changes to the present energy crisis situation. Moreover GREEN ENERGY is one of the most discussed topic all over the world and we are happy that GREEN ENERGY is the basic theme of our project.
Automation and Enhancement of Tea Manufacturing by controlled environment fermentation of tea and endpoint detection and gradation using image sensing.
INTRODUCTION: The idea is to automate and control the tea fermentation process and therefore manufacture tea in an enhanced process which will guarantee the best quality of tea for a given region. Environment fluctuation and error prone manual gradation often leads to lower quality of tea. Our project aims to carry out the tea fermentation process in a controlled environment chamber. The end point of fermentation is detected manually till date and the gradation varies from person to person. With the help of digital image processing we will detect the end point of the fermentation process and maintain a standard.
CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE
Carbon Capture Storage[CCS] will be the only solution that can arrest the global warming.
The polluted air/smoke let out from the factories is taken into the fire box. This smoke is then led/sent to the compressor . The availability of the smoke ,to the filter, is increased using the compressor. The pressurised air is sent to the filter. The filter is composed of the absorbent material monoethanolamine (MEA). carbon di oxide can also be absorbed by post or pre combustion process. It absorbs carbon from the pressurised smoke. The air, free from carbondioxide, is now let out into the atmosphere directly.When the absorbent reaches the saturation level, it is regenerated by heating it. The efficiency of absorbtion can be determined by using a CO2 detector.The detector shows the amount of carbondioxide absorbed by comparing the levels of corbondioxide present in the air before and after the gas has passed through the filter
Project CHAKSHUYAAN, a college sponsored project, is an inspiration drawn from the existing Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL) technologies. This seed is being jointly nurtured by the students of Mechanical, Electrical and Electronics branches of Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeethem, Amritapuri Campus, Kerala, India. The aim of this project is to develop a state of the art unmanned, radio controlled VTOL aircraft, which includes GPS navigation facilities and an onboard high resolution camera with reconnaissance features, thus creating an autonomous entity that ensures absolute safety in flights.
It is proposed to equip the aircraft with microcontrollers that would facilitate its safe return to command site even if it has veered off its range. Such an accomplishment is sure to find applications in search-and-rescue operations with further research. The wheels of this endeavor were set into motion in October 2007, by our team, crystallizing an idea we had into a mathematical model. Based on these parameters, feasibility studies were conducted which gave us the expected positive results. As we moved on to the month of November we looked out for the components required and matched our theoretically calculated data, the details of which have been mentioned in this report.
During the month of December the Mechanical engineering students started work on a design for the aircraft with due help of and suggestions from experts in the field. The best of the first five designs has been chosen to make a mock model for further experiments and assessments. In the mean time the Electrical and Electronics students have done a detailed study of the control aspects of the prospective aircraft. By the first week of April, 2008, the E.C.E. students came out with a very rudimentary form of a spped controller as their mini project. This on further development will be utilized to control the D.C. motors on the aircraft. Around the same time the engine which started for the first time and ran successfully for a total of 20 minutes details of which will be added at a later stage. This project is now presently under Research Work category of our university.
IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL INDEXING USING PYRAMID ALGORITHM
Efficient query processing in high dimensional data space is an important requirement for many data analysis tools. Multidimensional index structures must be applied for the data management in order to achieve a satisfactory performance. Pyramid Technique is a new indexing technique for high dimensional data spaces. The pyramid technique is adapted to range query processing. The Pyramid Technique is based on partitioning strategy which is optimized for high-dimensional data. The data space is divided into 2d pyramids sharing the center point as top. The single pyramid is cut into slice parallel to the base of the pyramid. The partitioning provides mapping of d-dimensional space to a 1-dimensional space which helps in easy management of data pages
The advantage of using Pyramid technique is that it does not deteriorate the performance when going to higher dimension rather it improves the performance for increasing dimensionality. Skewed queries can also be handled efficiently. We use B+-tree implementation to store the data item and it can easily be implemented on top of an existing DBMS. Operations such as insert, update, delete or search operations are performed using the B+-tree
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A 2 STROKE I. C. ENGINE
We are trying to study the variation in the efficiency of auto-gear vehicles as shown in (Fig: 4.1) by doing some minor changes in their existing design. We utilized the concept of indirect contact heat exchanger system for increasing the inlet air temperature without using any external source of energy in these vehicles.
on analysing the above equation for efficiency we will find that the efficiency increases as the term decreases, and we can clearly see that if we increase the term T1 in the equation of the , the whole term gets reduced and thus finally efficiency increases. Therefore for increasing the temperature T , we are increasing the temperature of the inlet air by absorbing the heat from the high temperature exhaust gases.
Our concept is based on this fundamental, we are employing a copper tube for the purpose of heat exchange to take place and connecting it at one end with the inlet of the air filter and the other end of the tube is mounted in the form of spiral tubes inside the bare silencer. Exhaust gases having a temperature in the range of 150 C to 200 C varying from vehicle to vehicle as well as from model to model and leave the silencer with a great velocity after passing through various membranes like structures inside the silencer which are used for reducing the noise of the exhaust. Thus as we all know that heat always flow from a body having higher temperature to a body having lower temperature. So heat transfer takes place between the suction air which is having the atmosphere temperature of 27?C or 30?C and the high temperature exhaust gases having temperature around 150?C to 200 C. So heat transfer takes place between them and thus the temperature of the suction/inlet air increases depending upon the weather condition and the distance travelled.
BELT SYSTEM FOR BODY SUPPORT
We know that health is the one of major issues of the world. Moreover, body problem like waist pain, back pain are become the part & parcel of today s busy life. These pains are very common to all kind of professional and peoples including those who have to sit long duration before computers. And the people involved with the strenuous work activities like lifting or carrying of heavy weights or doing other similar hardships always needs frequent bending up or down of the body parts. This may often lead to various types of body disorders & vertebral dislocation etc.
Our belt system is solution of all these problems. This system as a supporting means is useful where either the persons are indulged with the drudgery, lifts heavy weights, works for long hours or needs frequent bending of the body, or in other way at all situations whether as pre-damage or post-damage precautionary measures before indulge in any drudgery. It is ray of hope for those worker, professional, labors that have to take drink /alcohol/wine or other painkiller to bear on their physical problem /pains. The working principle is very simple. It is designed such that is as we bent down the potential energy get stored in springs and this is used when we get up. In addition, there in another arrangement that minimizes the load backbone dishes. This belt is made-up of steel rod, spring materials and nylon strips. Its weight is just 950 grams. This belt can be affordable to all even poor people. The price of one belt is Rs.500 ($ 10 approximately). That is Cheaper than visit a doctor.
DESIGN MODELING AND TESTING OF EPICYCLICGEAR CLUTCH
Clutch is mechanism which enables the rotary motion of one shaft to be transmitted, when desire to a second shaft the axis of which coincident with that of first Single plate clutch is normally used in more than four wheeler vehicle. Where size does not matter a clutch normally consist of a clutch plate sandwich between a pressure plates and fly wheel. Which is compressed and release by operation of operation of clutch paddle which operate by mechanically or hydraulically
The basic operation: The flywheel and the pressure plate are the drive or driven members of the clutch assembly .the driven member connected to the transmission input shaft are called the friction disc. As long as clutch is in disengaged position the drive members turn independently of the driven members thus disconnecting the engine from the transmission. However when the clutch pedal is engaged (clutch pedal released), the pressure plate moves towards the flywheel and the clutch disc is squeezed between the two revolving drive members and are forced to turn at the same speed.
CONSTRUCTIONS: Differential type clutch uses Bevel gear train in which it consist of four Bevel gears out of which two are sun gears & two are pinions. Sun gears are mounted on shafts & rotate with shaft, one is mounted on driving shaft & other on driven shaft & both are fixed to the shaft. Pinions acts like intermediate gear and can be two or four in numbers according to the requirement of design & size of clutch. The star pinions are mounted on body & can freely rotate on idle pins mounted on the body of clutch. Pins axis is perpendicular to the axis of shaft. Driving & driven shaft are co-axial. Sun gears are mounted on driving shaft and driven shaft one on each & rotate with them. Driving shaft is connected to engine at flywheel point & driven shaft is connected to gear box at clutch shaft .Both the shaft and clutch body are fitted to bell housing of vehicle using two brackets with bearings.
Design & Fabrication of Indexing Mechanism for Drilling Machine
The drilling machine is one of the most important machine tool in workshop. Although it was primarily designed to originate hole it perform so many operations in addition to drilling such as tapping, reaming and boring also. In drilling machine using power drive the holes are drilled quickly and at a low cost. The project is concerned with drilling holes along PCD. The applications which need this kind of machining are widely use in industries, automobiles, aviation etc. The name of project itself suggests the basic idea is to rotate the job by desired angle to drill hole along pitch circle diameter (PCD). This need is achieved by arrangement of worm and worm gears
ASSEMBELY The following section describes component wise assembly of the mechanism. BASE PLATE Rectangular base plate is manufactured from C.I. the basic purpose of base plate is to take entire load of system, provide support to the bearing, shaft and worm gear assembly. It also transfers the force acting on work piece to the rigid base of drilling machine. BEARING HOLDER AND TAPER ROLLER BEARING Bearing holder is specifically manufactured disc to accommodate as well as mount the bearing on a plate. It consists of metal plate of 10 mm thickness and 100 mm external diameter. The internal diameter depends upon external diameter of the bearing. This holder is welded on the plate as per desired location of the bearing. Taper roller bearing is used since there can be combined radial and axial loads. The bearing no. 32207 A is used as per the working conditions (low static and dynamic basic capacity). CENTRAL SHAFT It is fabricated from the round mild steel bar of 55 mm diameter and 155 mm axial length. It is then machined on center lath to produce steps and threads at desired location. The purpose of shaft is, to transmit the rotary motion from worm wheel to the working table. It also transfers the force applied by the drill bit on work piece to the rigid table of drill machine. WORM AND WORN WHEEL The worm is mounted on base plate with help of paddle step bearing and four nut and bolts of M8 size. The periphery of worm is divided and marked in ten equal parts. A pointer is fixed to indicate angular movement of the worm. The worm wheel is mounted on the shaft, and lies between the two bearings. The worm is rotated with help of detachable hand lever. BALL BEARING The ball bearing is held in bearing holder, which is further welded on a metal plate. This metal plate is supported from base with help of four rigid columns. The application of ball bearing here is only for supporting the central shaft. WORKING TABLE The working table is fixed at upper end of the shaft with help of treads. The main function of this table is to hold and rotate the work piece when required. It also transfers the force applied by drill bit during drilling operation to the shaft. C-CLAMP Four C-clamps are employed to hold the work piece against the working table. The selection of C-clamps instead of self centered vice is based on cost reduction.
CONCLUSION After proper testing and obtaining the results it can be concluded that all the predefined objectives of our project such as reducing lead time, minimizing idleness of machine, power prevention, increase in rate of production, optimizing use of CNC & NC machines by proper utilization of indexing mechanism & social motto of employing unskilled labor have been achieved successfully.
Camless Rotating Cylinder Engine
Purpose Of the experiment The project in its present form is the result of development of idea of using a rotating cylinder valve mechanism and eliminating the poppet valve mechanism for a four stroke engine, thereby overcoming various drawbacks of poppet valves. The drawbacks of poppet valves are – 1. Reduced efficiency- part of the energy generated in IC engine is taken to operate poppet valve mechanism thus reducing the efficiency. 2. More number of parts to operate poppet valve. 3. Extra manufacturing, maintenance and handling due to additional parts thus incurring additional cost. These drawbacks are overcome using a rotating cylinder engine valve mechanism.
PROCEDURES USED The Valve mechanism consists of rotating cylinder. The cylinder is fitted with a bevel gear at the bottom and has two sets of compression rings above & below the exhaust port. Overall the CRC engine offers quite simple and rugged construction; it consists of a piston, connecting rod and crankshaft assembly (including flywheel and crown gear) & a rotating cylinder assembly.
OBSERVATION & CONCLUSION Thing which distinguishes the CRC engine from the conventional engine is the use of less number of parts, and all the other differences come as a result of the above stated. Decreased number of parts in the CRC engine creates some major discrepancies under the subjects like: – efficiency, manufacturing cost, maintenance cost, noise level, etc. Some of the benefits of CRC engine over the poppet valve engine are its better efficiency as the engine won’t use a large part of power developed for the functioning of the valves, secondly the engine is economical and easy to produce owing to less number of parts. The engine needs low maintenance and is energy conserving too (due to higher efficiency) and it is less noisy as compared to other designs. Further the engine doesn t need any special machinery for production so is easily acceptable for production.
SOLAR – DE- HUMID HYDRATOR
AIM/ INNOVATION: We aim to build a solar dehydrator that has been combined with a dehumidifier, which can be used by farmers, food processing corporations in rural developing countries. As we know the dehydrator (whose main function is to draw out water from a product) already exists and there is nothing new and impressive about it, so we plan to combine this dehydrator with a machine that could create a controlled humid climate, and then allow users to extract the dehydrated water and make it safe to drink.
OPERATION: A dehydrator removes the water that food contains through a chimney, or channel, in which the hot steam rises and escapes the heating chamber. We aim to harness the exhaust from a dehydrator and allow it to pass though another smaller channel, in which the steam will be condensed into drinking water. According to the basic laws of thermodynamics, a greater change in temperature will cause a faster moving current from hot to cold. This basic principle will allow the mechanism to keep a constant steady flow of air throughout the machine. The final product of this machine will be dried fruits and vegetables, along with a byproduct of fresh, clean water.
CONCLUSION: We will invent a dehydrator that has been combined with a dehumidifier, which can be used by farmers, food processing corporations, or bio-diesel corporations in rural developing countries. The dehydrator would effectively and efficiently dehydrate a product within few days, while also condensing the moisture out of the air for use by the cultivators as drinking water. It will have expandable capacity to grow with the increase of their businesses, yet low cost to the consumer.
DESIGN OF TRACTOR OPERATED COCONUT TREE SPRAYER
REFRIGERATION USING WASTE HEAT IN CARS
Quite often, people s own desire for comfort increases the burden on environment, the use of private cars and air conditioning units in them are an example of this. These add comfort to the people, increasing the burden on environment. In this project we have tried to give positive life cycle environmental impact by reducing the emission of exhaust gas. This reduction is achieved using vapor absorption cycle instead of vapor compression cycle and by using refrigeration motor run by waste heat that is normally used
LITERATURE SURVEY: At present vapor compression system is widely being used in automobiles for refrigeration purpose. The major disadvantages of this system are Compressor runs by the power from engine crankshaft, thus reducing the efficiency of the engine Use of refrigerant increases the cost and the environmental impact
LITHIUM BROMIDE: Being a salt, lithium bromide does not exert any pressure and does not boil off when heated. So the refrigerant water vapor boiled off from the absorbent solution in the generator leaves as pure refrigerant vapor. Thus there is no need of rectifier to separate out the absorbent vapor from the refrigerant vapor, as required in water- ammonia absorption cycle. Lithium bromide salt when mixed with water forms the solution. As the amount of the salt mixed in the solution increases, the solution is said to be stronger and with a reduction of salt content the solution becomes weaker. The concentration of the solution is denoted by the amount of salt by weight expressed as percent of the solution weight. The concentration of the solution does not change with temperature, but its specific gravity does. The concentration of a solution does not change with temperature, its concentration comes down. This is because the weight of the total solution has increased on absorbing water, but salt content has not changed. A stronger solution can absorb more water vapor than a solution of lower concentration. The rate of absorption of water vapor comes down as temperature of the solution increases.
LITHIUM BROMIDE ABSORPTION SYSTEM: The refrigerant used in the absorption system is highly soluble in absorbent. The evaporator and absorber are inter-connected.so the refrigerant vapor formed in the evaporator (on the evaporation of the liquid refrigerator) is absorbed by the absorbent in the absorber due to the strong affinity of the absorbent for the refrigerant, thereby maintaining the refrigerant vapor pressure in the evaporator at the low level required for continuous vaporization of liquid refrigerator to obtain refrigeration. To recover the refrigerant from the absorbent it is pumped from the absorber to the generator, where it is heated using steam or hot water. On getting heated the absorbent releases the refrigerant vapor as a high temperature/pressure vapor. It passes to the comparatively cooler condenser where it is condensed. The liquid refrigerant then passes on to the evaporator thus completing the refrigerant cycle. The absorbent flows back from the generator to the absorber. Heat is generated when the refrigerant is absorbed by the absorbent-known as the heat of absorption or heat of dilution. Further the refrigerant vapor condenses in the absorbent solution and for this the latent heat of vaporization of the refrigerant vapor has to be removed. Therefore the absorber also needs cooling and for this cooling medium (air or water) used for the condenser is first passed through absorber and then to the condenser. Thus the heat rejection of an absorption system is higher and so requires higher flow rate of the coolant (air or water) than the mechanical system. The cooling tower capacity for an absorption machine therefore should be much more than that of a mechanical vapor-compression system of the system capacity.
ROBO FOR BORE WELL RESCUE
We see and hear of situations in India and other countries where children get trapped in bore wells . The rescue of these children are difficult and risky. A small delay in the rescue will cost the child his\her life . In the present scenario what we do is dig a new well of the same depth next to the bore well and then make a tunnel connecting the two. This is a time consuming and costly process. It may take hours or even days to dig new well and save the child. To overcome these hurdles we have designed a ROBO which can assist in the rescue operation. It is faster , cheaper and safer. It can monitor the child , supply oxygen and transform into a net to pick the child up.
COMPONENTS USED WIRED CAMERA: Here we are using a wired camera to monitor the position of child trapped inside the borewell. With the help of camera,the robo can be controlled from a remote place such as reception PNEUMATIC CYLINDER: Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which produce force, often in combination with movement, and are powered by compressed gas (typically air). To perform their function, pneumatic cylinders impart a force by converting the potential energy of compressed gas into kinetic energy. This is achieved by the compressed gas being able to expand, without external energy input, which itself occurs due to the pressure gradient established by the compressed gas being at a greater pressure than the atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction.
PNEUMATIC MOTOR: A pneumatic motor is a machine which converts energy of compressed air into mechanical work. In industrial applications linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator. As for rotary motion, either a vane type air motor or piston air motor is used. Rotary motion vane type air motors are used to start large industrial diesel or natural gas engines. Stored energy in the form of compressed air, nitrogen or natural gas enters the sealed motor chamber and exerts pressure against the vanes of a rotor. Much like a windmill, this causes the rotor to turn at high speed. Reduction gears are used to create high torque levels sufficient to turn the engine flywheel when engaged by the pinion gear of the air motor or air starter.