Projects & Participants
AUTOMATIC SOLAR PANEL GUIDE SYSTEM
This work is focused on the application of electrochemical technique for the removal of colour, specifically due to the presence of reactive dyes. The project aims at providing an overview of electrochemical processes used for accomplishing the remediation of industrial waste-water, particularly electro-oxidation & electro-coagulation. The use of electrochemical process as a pre-treatment step to enhance the degradability of inhibitory compounds or contaminants can potentially be justified due to the formation of intermediate, which is easily degraded in the subsequent bio-logical treatment.
It is found to be an effective, selective, economical, and clean alternative for dealing with wastewaters bearing high loads of organic compounds, especially dyes. Such treatment produces total degradation of compounds to CO2 and H2O or at least a considerable decrease in toxicity. A direct anodic process or an indirect anodic oxidation via the production of oxidants such as hydroxyl radicals, ozone, etc. usually destroys the organic and toxic pollutants present in wastewater. The only needs are an electric power source and adequate materials to be used as electrodes. Additionally as this process does not require any addition of chemicals & long treatment cycles, it is possible to reduce the operating cost, construction cost and facility area.
The treatment of textile effluent for reuse using an electrochemical oxidation step combined with a biological process and an ultrafiltration step is demonstrated in this project. By incorporating membrane filtration & biological process with the electrochemical method, the quality of treated water was observed to exceed the reuse standards. With widely studied parameters, this research offers a promising way for recycling textile wastewater.
The goal of this research is to materialize the ‘Electrolytic Effluent Treatment Technique’ on a commercial scale & thus saving the mother earth & all the living creatures.
The project ‘TELE VOTING SYSTEM’ comes under the embedded system, which is a combination of software and hardware and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts designed to perform a specific function. This project is done using MICROCHIPS’S PIC MICROCONTROLLER PIC16F73. Program coding is done using assembly language. Microchips Integrated Development Environment MPLAB version 5.30 is used to simulate and assemble the written code.
In Tele Voting System, the vote casting is done through telephone. The PIC16F73 detects the ring. After the call is detected the voter enters his password. This is a four-digit password. This password is compared with previously defined secret code. If the password is right, the system determines the user as an authorized person. Then the voter can cast his vote. If the password is wrong or if the password has been already entered, then the call ends. Then the system is waiting for next ring. The vote entered by each user is stored in the general purpose register or EEPROM (non volatile memory). In EEPROM it preserves the data when the system is Un-powered.
This service allows the subscriber to conduct telephonic public opinion, polls and surveys. The network operator can temporarily allocate a single telephone number to the televoting subscribers and persons wishing to respond to the opinion poll can call and post his opinion.
EOG BASED ROOM UTILITY CONTROL FOR BEDRIDDDEN PATIENTS USING MICROCONTROLLER
Electroculogram (EOG) and Electroretinogram (ERG), are bioptentials arising from human eye, which has got physiological importance.. Electroretinogram, is the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) and the ganglion cells.Electroculogram is a signal representing the resting potential of retina.Bedridden patients could be considerably beneficiated from the effective use of these potentials, since they have the ability for eye movements. Proper analysis and electronic interpretations of their EOG could enable them to operate devices remotely. Suitably placed electrodes on the peripherals of the eyes can capture these potential effectively, and this facilitates a easier thought acquisition of the patient in terms of electrical signals. For the right side movement of eyes, EOG results in a positive signal and same gives a negative one during left side movement. The output frequency range 0-10Hz , is effectively filtered by a low pass filter.The EOG signals from the patient acquired by Ag-AgCl electrodes are properly filtered and amplified. The conditioned signal is fed to a microcontroller, which analyze the signal, controls various input parameters. The modulated bit segments are transmitted to control a switching network. The various parameters to be selected are displayed on the LCD display.This system can be used for paralytic ,hemiplegics, handicapped people and for patients who are bedridden, but can move their eyes and can interpret the external environment. The system can be modified and extended to trigger Alarm signals and communication channels.
VOICE CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR CUM BED
Many people with disabilities do not have the dexterity necessary to control a joystick on an electrical wheelchair. The aim of this project is to implement an interesting application using small vocabulary (word or letter) recognition system. The methodology adopted is based on grouping a microcontroller with a speech recognition unit for isolated word or letter for an independent speaker. Using speaker independent mode, first, the voice recognition system is trained and required commands are stored in the memory. After training, the system is switched to voice input mode, where the comparison between the vocal commands from the user and those stored in the memory is done and appropriate action is performed. The resulting design is used to control a wheelchair for a handicapped person based on vocal commands. The main advantage of this system is that, it can be converted to bed for the relaxation of patient, without any manual effort, but by using vocal commands. Additional features like obstacle detection, keypad control (as a backup, when the voice system fails) are included. The final product is highly efficient, low power consuming, socially and economically beneficial for handicapped patients.
Secure client’s password from server.
Goal : Secure client’s password from server.
Encryption Block : Increases Security of client’s Password through RSA Algorithm. Adding a random number to the encrypted password.
Server : Can See —- User name and Encrypted Password. Can’t See —- Original password.
“Have a dangerous mission? KNIGHT HAWK will help you tackle it.” These adaptable, tough and reliable robots go where you can’t, shouldn’t or don’t want to. The field of robotics along with Internetworking in the field of Defence can change the view of battle field. The only unrecoverable loss in battle fields is Human Life & this can be prevented by use of Knight Hawks. This work aims to implement Artificial Intelligence based web control system of Robot that will minimize the presence of men in battle field. Knight Hawk has the features of Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence. This Robot can receive pictures of a battle field from a satellite or an aircraft and then can decide the plan to attack on enemy camps in minimum time through shortest path. Knight Hawk can be controlled through an application built on JAVA architecture & all Image Processing and AI concepts have been implemented on MATLAB. Initially a top view of battle field is taken through a satellite or an aircraft. After that this view is passed to the application. Here different objects are identified like tanks & soldiers, and also are differentiated from home troops. After that, priority of each object is initialized i.e. order in which they should be fragged. Also shortest and safest path is decided to attack so that attack can be finished in minimum time
This application will greatly minimize the presence of men in battle field. Also, various other systems of the robot can also be configured & controlled from application as per requirement. The application will open new avenues for other functions on the robot’s system to be controlled from web. The system can also be configured for other specific purposes as per requirement, be it civilian or scientific research.
“Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian Economy”- said Mahatma Gandhi five decades ago. Even today, the situation is still the same, with almost the entire economy being sustained by agriculture, which is the mainstay of the villages. Not only the economy, but also every one of us looks up to agriculture for our sustenance too. Therefore, it is no surprise if agriculture gets the celebrity status in the name of Precision farming (PF). It is here the challenge arises considering the implementation of the technology at various levels in the Global community. The need of the hour is not application of the technology but the adoption of appropriate technology, which would suit the particular level of the global community. In India, the farmers need some forethought before implementing any new technology.
ONLINE VOTING USING BIOMETRICS
Voting is essential for democracy. Nowadays, the electronic voting system is used; in which voters register their vote in the kit. The dramatic impact of the Internet has led to the analysis of online voting. The biggest political football involving electronic democracy is online voting’ if it becomes a reality it will signal the largest revolution so far in electronic democracy. So the main objective of the project is to design an innovative system called “ONLINE VOTING USING BIOMETRICS”.
The main objective of the online voting system should ? Enable a voter to register his/her vote remotely (from anywhere in the state) ? Have a centralized vote storage and management ? Have a secured and monitored voting system (encryption) ? Have one voter one vote (flag set) ? Provide security over the voter’s input – fingerprint (avoid duplication) ? Provide additional help options to the booth administrator during any malfunctioning in the polling booths.
AUTHENTICATION Authentication is a fundamental component of human interaction with computers. The eAuthentication is defined as the web based service that provides authentication to end users accessing (logging into) an Internet service. The eAuthentication is similar to Credit Card verification for eCommerce web sites. The verification is done by a dedicated service that receives the input and returns success or fails indication. There are three pillars of eAuthentication, ? Passwords and PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) ? Tokens ? Biometrics.
A SOFTWARE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
Most of the Indian rural population lie below poverty line (BPL) and run short of the basic amenities. Indian government has launched several plans for to swap off poverty from the nation and for rural development but the rural population is unaware of these plans. Even if they are interested then due to lack of knowledge and communication problem they are unable to avail them. Considering these facts we have developed the software “A SOFTWARE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT” which hopefully gives a new direction towards rural development. In some states for instance Orissa, Orissa government has made IT department (or IT CLUB) by combining a couple of small villages together. The appointed officers inform the rural people about the government plans and provide all updates on the schemes. We have developed the software to implement this in a much better and effective way.
SYMMETRICAL CIRCULAR TOOL PATH CONTROLLER BY SIMPLE LINKAGE
This project deals with the design, analysis and fabrication of symmetrical circular arc tool path controller. The objective of designing this linkage is that it can be used to control the tool or table movement in modern machineries in alternate to the piston cylinder arrangement. By using this mechanism, various types of tool and table motions in the machineries can be obtained. By the conventional piston and cylinder arrangement only linear motion can be achieved. But by using this mechanism angular and elliptical path can be traced. And hence complicated shapes in various profiles can be machined easily and the time required for machining these type of profiles gets reduced and hence the range of application of the machines increases. This can also be used for controlling robotic arms. Hence some complications in robotic arm movement can be avoided. This can be used for further more applications by modifying its components
APPLET CODE GENERATOR
The project entitled APPLET CODE GENERATOR is designed and developed for generating source code for the applets. This project is developed in Visual Basic. The main aim this project is to generate automatic code for the designed layout. This project is used for AWT components such as
- Label Box
- Text Field
- Text Area
- Check Box
- Option Button
- List Box
- Choice box
- Horizontal Scroll Bar and
- Vertical Scroll Bar
Each component has several properties such as left, width, height, top, name etc., It also includes drawing of several graphical components of Applet such as Line, Circle, Ellipse, Rectangle and Polygon. These graphical components can be filled with several colours. We can also create several menus and submenus and we can assign functions for several menus. Also we can create source code for performing several operations for each component
BALLOT AUTOMATION SATELLITE LINKS AND BIOMETRICS SYSTEM
India is one of the largest democratic countries all over the world. The democracy was leading to go completely electronic during the last parliament election. So why can’t we become the first nation to go completely online for voting.
In this paper we have tried to discuss some of the biometric concepts and how to use the satellite links to make the election completely on secured and online basis. We have made use of fingerprint system to identify an authorized voter to allow him to cast his vote for his constituency from any where in India and provide facilities for online counting with the help of our new electronic voting system.
In order to increase the speed of the system we have used mainframe servers and data warehouse for effective storing of data, and data mining for faster identification in terms of remote voters. To improve the security of the system we have even made use of secure data transmission algorithms. There by this system becomes much secured, remote access is possible here, less human interface, less expensive and well suitable for our economy.
AUTOMATIC COCONUT PEELING MACHINE
Problem Definition: In many villages, farmers and for many businessmen’s removing shell from the fibre of coconut is very tedious job. Businessmen’s are getting coconut at a rate of Rs. 2/- to 3/- and selling at four to five times higher than what they are getting. This is because farmers cannot take more than 20 coconuts in a bag. It is not profitable for them. Because money earned is spent on logistics. Mostly men are employed in this activity and they are paid low wages. Maximum 50/- per day. It is unsafe and time consuming in removing shell from the coconut using the previous methods.
Working Concept: System works on the principle of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy. The concept has two parts 1) Electrical, 2) Mechanical.
Description of Mechanical part:
These following are the parts
1) 3 knife edged bars
2) Scroll disc
5) Outer rigid plate
Description of Electrical part:
This consists of
1) AC induction motor
2) Control switch for reversing.
3D x 2 HOLOGRAPHY
The main objective of the project ’3D x 2 Holography’ is to display the back image, of any physical object. Through this project we are trying to give an insight to a new concept, THE CONCEPT OF 4D (3D x 2 VIRTUAL IMAGING). The holographic images are formed as a result of merging of two 3D images and thus the name 3D x 2. The working model is based on the principle of electronically controlled, mechanical scanning
The display will be like a ‘virtual object’, living or non-living being formed in air which resembles any other object around us. It can be viewed from all angles, just like a true object which is existing right in front of our eyes. In short, it is something which virtually exists before our eyes.
The current working model is a prototype which displays a basic 3D x 2 dimensional holographic image and a 2D images produced by flashing LEDS in a specific sequence and rotating about an axis at a moderately high speed.
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF IMPROVED ARECA NUT DEHUSKING MACHINE
This project deals with the development, design and fabrication stages of machine for the removal of areca nut from its shell. The main intention being that of substituting human skill in the conventional method for this operation, a brief survey of conventional method and the existing machines are also given.
Usually the fresh areca taken from the areca nut tree dries up within 24 hours. Manual dehusking of areca is slow process and needs skilled labours. Most of the time due to lack of skilled labours. All the fresh areca taken from the tree can not be peeled off within 24 hrs. Dry areca nuts have less market value than the fresh ones. So to compensate the unavailability of workers, areca nut cultivators always needed a dehusking machine, which can work parallel with labours. Many peoples worked on this, developed many prototypes. None of the machine was optimum nor cost effective. Some of the machines cost was too high, which was not at all affordable by medium and small areca cultivators.
This project report deals with the design concepts used for the development of this machine, constructional features and elements of machine. Important calculations made for the selection of components of machine are dealt under the chapter design concepts.
Figures of the elements of machine, and their fabrication methods are covered under the chapter constructional features. Working of the machine is explained under the chapter working of machine. Conclusion is made by calculating production rate and the cost of machine. scope for further works of machine is included in the last chapter of the report.
LINE FOLLOWING ROBOT
Line Following Robot with pick and placement of object project’s purpose is to make the robot to move on a specified path and picking the component from a specified location and placing it on said location, mostly catering for manufacturing industrial applications. Sensing a path and maneuvering the robot to stay on the path, while constantly correction wrong moves (moving out of path) using feedback mechanism so that line following activity is maintained.
The path to be moved on the black strip on white surface for which it is programmed in such manner reflected signal is arises if other than black path is sensed and that signal is used to correct the horizontal movements of robot.
Pick and placing activity of the robot has to pickup the component from a specified location and placing at a said location for which robot is making the arm to move in vertical plane with a said angles. Gripper movement is controlled by the program. This application be extended to many dimensions.
MICROBIAL FUEL CELL USING SEWAGE WATER AND PLANTS
India has been the centre of technological innovations for past 60 years in various fields but even today 56% of Rural India doesn’t have basic needs such as electricity. Hence renewable energy applications are becoming a popular means of power generation within our society. We have come out with a new revolutionary idea which will change the face of India and also decrease global warming in India with a new and unique method of electricity production. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are new form of renewable energy technology that can generate electricity from what would otherwise be considered waste.
This technology can use bacterium already present in wastewater as catalysts to generating electricity while simultaneously treating wastewater. Although MFCs generate a lower amount of energy and efficiency than that of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, a combination of both electricity production and wastewater treatment would reduce the cost of treating primary effluent wastewater. Here, we review the microbial communities found in MFCs and the prospects for this emerging bio-energy technology. In the theoretical background about microbial fuel cells, the basic definition of PEM fuel cells has been given and then the description of microbial fuel cell has been given in detail. The electron’s path to the anode, the uses of mediators in anode and cathode and the construction of the MFC is described. Then the different experiments conducted by us have been given along with the results for each experiment and the conclusion drawn from all the experiments. Then the application of the microbial fuel cells in rural areas has been described.
OLPC POWER MANAGEMENT
OLPC is an organization engaged in the construction of XO-1 laptops. Their vision is to provide a laptop to each child in the age group of 5-12 in the developing nations, thereby helping them to learn through independent interaction and exploration. Since it is an open source project, new features are being added to it frequently. As a part of our project, we are trying to contribute a few additions to the existing system.
The OLPC is a portable device, and therefore power management is very important. Proper power management reduces the consumption of electricity, thus helping the reduction of wastage of natural resources. However, the OLPC has only limited features in the power management module. So we are trying to enhance the power management module of the OLPC with some features that are usually present in normal laptops.
Currently the OLPC just displays the battery status (charging/discharging) and its percentage level. But it does not show the amount of time for which the battery will last. In normal laptops, the users have an opportunity to set up the power management features according to their own choice. However, the OLPC does not have any power options property window. Also all notebooks warn the users when the battery is low.
We are trying to bring about these features into the OLPC laptop. With these additions, the basic power management in the OLPC could be done competently. Also, it can be extended further to include the wireless network of the OLPC which is one of its key features.
CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT ASSEMBLY
A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint, Hardy-Spicer joint, or Hooke’s joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the rod to ‘bend’ in any direction, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion. When the two shafts are at an angle other than 180 (straight), the driven shaft does not rotate with constant angular speed in relation to the drive shaft. The difficulty with the Cardan joint is that the output angular velocity of the driven shaft is not constant when the angle between the shafts is not small, but pulsates twice in every revolution. Generally, Cardan joints are restricted to angles of 15 or less
Constant Velocity Joints (aka homokinetic or CV joints) allow a rotating shaft to transmit power through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed, without an appreciable increase in friction or play. The Rzeppa joint consists of a spherical ball and socket connected by six steel balls that run in longitudinal grooves in the ball and socket, and which are held in a cage between the ball and socket. One shaft is connected with the socket, the other with the ball, usually by a splined shaft allowing some longitudinal motion. The cage always assumes a position making equal angles with the input and output shafts.
The universal joint can’t transmit power at an angle more than 15 while a CV joint or a Rzeppa joint can’t transmit at an angle more than 30. And the CV joint is too complex to machine, costly and time consuming.
LOW COST LIGHTING FOR RURAL AREAS
The students in the non-electrified areas of India find it very difficult to study during night time due to the lack of proper lighting. They mainly depend on the traditional lighting system such as kerosene lamps, candle light etc. The light intensities of these sources are very poor. A remedy for this problem is either to electrify their houses or to provide a simple, low cost lighting system to them which can be easily installed and easily controlled. The process of complete electrification of remote areas is still a far dream for these people. The government will have to spend a huge amount for the purpose of electrification and may take years to complete the process. Another major difficulty is the high cost of electrification. Many families in the remote areas of Kerala find it financially difficult to obtain an electricity connection. They may have to draw the lines for many kilometers for the purpose. On the whole, the process of electrification is not an easy way to help the poor students.
As an effective remedy for the problems encountered by such students, we propose a low cost, low maintenance lighting system which can be installed and used easily by the student or by anyone in the family. The system comprises of a table onto which a lamp lit by LEDs is mounted. A dynamo, run by foot pedal and coupled to a battery, is used to light the group of LEDs. The system is compact and produces a well lit environment on the table. The student while using the table can swing the pedal and make the dynamo work to produce the required light.
BIOFUEL FROM WASTE HUSK
A biosensor is an analytical device to convert a biological response into an electrical signal. Its response is determined by the biocatalyst membrane, which accomplishes the conversion of reactant to product. It covers sensor devices utilized to determine the concentration of substances in the living body and also the other parameter of biological interest. A successful biosensor must possess at least some of the following beneficial features
1. The biocatalyst must be highly specific, show good stability over a large number of assays (i.e. much greater than 100) and stable under normal storage conditions for the purpose of analyses, except in the case of colorimetric enzyme strips and dipsticks.
2. The reaction should be as independent of such physical parameters as stirring, pH and temperature as is manageable. This would allow the analysis of samples with minimal pre-treatment. If the reaction involves cofactors or coenzymes these should, preferably, also be co-immobilised with the enzyme.
3. The response should be accurate, precise, reproducible and linear over the useful analytical range, without dilution or concentration. It should also be free from electrical noise.
4. If the biosensor is to be used for invasive monitoring in clinical situations, the probe must be tiny and biocompatible, having no toxic or antigenic effects. If it is to be used in fermenters it should be sterilisable. This is preferably performed by autoclaving but no biosensor enzymes can presently withstand such drastic wet-heat treatment. In either case, the biosensor should not be prone to fouling or proteolysis.
5. The complete biosensor should be cheap, small, portable and capable of being used by semi-skilled operators.
6. There should be a market for the biosensor, it is of little use if tradional method are employed their by discouraging laboratory testing.